The German Version of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)
The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) is the most commonly used measure for life satisfaction. Although there are numerous studies confirming factorial validity, most studies on dimensionality are based on small samples. A controversial debate continues on the factorial invariance across different subgroups. The present study aimed to test psychometric properties, factorial structure, factorial invariance across age and gender, and to deliver population-based norms for the German general population from a large cross-sectional sample of 2519 subjects. Confirmatory factor analyses supported that the scale is one-factorial, even though indications of inhomogeneity of the scale have been detected. Both findings show invariance across the seven age groups and both genders. As indicators of the convergent validity, a positive correlation with social support and negative correlation with depressiveness was shown. Population-based norms are provided to support the application in the context of individual diagnostics.
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