Femtosecond photoemission microscopy
We developed a novel experiment for time-resolved photoemission microscopy by combining a commercial photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a pulsed Ti:sapphire laser oscillator. The laser system, the setup of the delay stage for pump–probe experiments, and the interface between the PEEM and the laser system are discussed. We use self-organization of Ag islands and nanowires on Si(1 1 1) and 4° vicinal Si(0 0 1) to generate structures with a plasmon resonance that matches the photon energy of our laser (ℏω = 3.1 eV after frequency doubling). In two-photon photoemission (2PPE) the photoemission yield then directly visualizes the plasmons in the nanostructures. Accordingly, the photoemission yield depends on the size and shape of the nanostructures, and on the polarization of the laser pulses as well. In Ag nanowires, we observe surface plasmon polariton (SPP) waves by a beating that is formed by interference of the SPP wave and the incident laser light. In a pump–probe experiment, we can directly visualize the propagation of the SPP on a femtosecond time scale.
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