In DuiEss als E-Book verfügbar! Presents an overview of structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with dementias of different etiology. Brain correlates for dementia related to Alzheimer's disease are found primarily in the hippocampus region and medial temporal lobe, but abnormalities also commonly appear in the temporo-parietal and frontolateral areas, as well as in the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus. Primary brain correlates of Lewy body dementia are localized in the visual cortices, the temporal-parietal association cortices, the posterior cinculate gyrus, the precuneus, and the prefrontal cortex. Vascular dementia is characterized by abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and sometimes in the cerebellum, sensorimotor region, and occipital lobe. A summary is given of brain correlates of fronto-temporal dementia, semantic dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. While hippocampus atrophy and functional degeneration in the medial temporal lobe represent neural correlates common to all dementia types, the findings highlight the importance of more specific differential diagnoses.