Discusses the relationship between thinking and memory. After definitions and classifications of memory are presented with an emphasis on episodic memory, brain correlates of episodic memory processes are identified. Areas identified as being involved in encoding and consolidation of episodic memories include 2 limbic circuits referred to as the Papez circuit (hippocampal formation, mammillary bodies, thalamus, cingulate gyrus) and the basolateral limbic circuit (thalamus, amygdala, subcallosal area). In addition, the role of areas in the prefrontal cortex in the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories is highlighted. Then, studies conducted with brain-damaged patients and neuroimaging are presented to reveal the association between thinking and memory. In particular, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which was associated with episodic memory, is linked to memory processes, higher order executive functioning, and metacognitive processes. It is concluded that memory and thinking share underlying neural networks in the limbic and prefrontal regions.