Visualization of shear motions of cohesive powders in the true biaxial shear tester
Steady-state flow of powders is defined as a continuous deformation of the material without volume change while the stresses at the specimen's boundaries remain constant. Recent investigations have shown that this state, especially for cohesive powders, is not always as steady as it should be by definition. In this article a recent extension of the true biaxial shear tester is introduced that allows a view of the shear motion of the brick-shaped powder specimen inside the tester. By applying a dark-colored powder pattern onto a light powder sample, the movement of the powder can be captured using a CCD camera. Development of shear bands and inhomogeneities of the sample can be visualized. Experiments with a cohesive powder with purely strain-controlled, volume-preserving shear cycles, as well as mixed stress-strain controlled experiments, are presented. The recorded images as well as stress-strain data from discrete elements simulations are compared to the experimental results.
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