Autism symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders
Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J.L.; O´Reagan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.
; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Müller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda N.J.; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders : devoted to all severe psychopathologies in childhood., Jg. 39 (2009), Heft 2, S. 197 - 211
It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher in probands than siblings or controls, and higher in male siblings than male controls. Autism symptoms were familial, partly shared with familiality of ADHD in males. Latent class analysis using SCQ-score yielded five classes; Class 1(31%) had few autism symptoms and low comorbidity; Classes 2–4 were intermediate; Class 5(7%) had high autism symptoms and comorbidity. Thus autism symptoms in ADHD represent a familial trait associated with increased neurodevelopmental and oppositional/conduct disorders.