Within the SulfoSYS (Sulfolobus Systems Biology) project, the effect of temperature on a metabolic network is investigated at the systems level. Sulfolobus solfataricus utilizes an unusual branched ED (Entner-Doudoroff) pathway for sugar degradation that is promiscuous for glucose and galactose. In the course of metabolic pathway reconstruction, a glucose dehydrogenase isoenzyme (GDH-2, SSO3204) was identified. GDH-2 exhibits high similarity to the previously characterized GDH-1 (SSO3003, 61% amino acid identity), but possesses different enzymatic properties, particularly regarding substrate specificity and catalytic efficiency. In contrast with GDH-1, which exhibits broad substrate specificity for C5 and C6 sugars, GDH-2 is absolutely specific for glucose. The comparison of kinetic parameters suggests that GDH-2 might represent the major player in glucose catabolism via the branched ED pathway, whereas GDH-1 might have a dominant role in galactose degradation via the same pathway as well as in different sugar-degradation pathways.