Several regions of the world are characterized by persistent internal conflict and deeply rooted structures of violence. In this work. the contributors explore why domestic and international efforts to re-establish order, human security, democratic processes, and an economy capable of developing, are proving so difficult to achieve. They look at three regions in particular - the Caucasus, Central America and the Horn of Africa - and investigate the wider questions involved in state failure, the dynamics of economies geared to violence, the roles of outside actors and aid agencies in supporting reconstruction, and what effective judicial reform, decentralization and other changes may achieve. They are all concerned to encourage more effective action, processes and policies to help regions and countries to end, or recover from, endemic warfare and violence. Without such a transition, the prospects for their populations remain bleak and the flight of refugees to more secure and prosperous countries will continue.