Schmidt, Torsten Claus; Steinbach, K.; Buetehorn, U.:

Environmental Analysis of Nitroaromatics

In: Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry / Meyers, R.A. (Hrsg.)
Chichester: Wiley (2000), S. 2946-2966
Buchaufsatz / Kapitel / Fach: Chemie
Abstract:
Nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) are important anthropogenic chemicals, which may enter all areas of the   environment in significant amounts. Once there, they   may be transformed, mainly via redox reactions. Most   NACs and their transformation products are rather toxic,   both in humans and ecosystems, and they are especially   known for their carcinogenic potential. Thus, input and   detrimental effects of NACs make environmental surveillance   necessary, which in turn requires selective, sensitive,   unbiased and robust methods suitable for the analysis of   complex mixtures. These requirements are mainly ful-   filled by the combination of an enrichment step with   chromatographic separation and use of an appropriate   detector. Official methods today use liquid–liquid extraction   (LLE) or solid-phase extraction (SPE), followed by   high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with   ultraviolet (UV) detection, or gas chromatography (GC)   with electron capture detection (ECD). These methods   are widely established and have been thoroughly tested in   interlaboratory comparisons. However, new methods for   extraction, separation and detection are emerging, which   are superior in terms of the required characteristics, and   thus may replace the existing methods in the future. Both   standard methods and new developments for the environmental   analysis of NACs are discussed in this article.   Regarding the references given, priority was given to the   most recent developments, and thus about 70% of the cited   literature is less than five years old.