A solid-phase microextraction. GC/MS method for the trace determination of a wide variety of polar aromatic amines in aqueous samples was developed. Prior to extraction the analytes were derivatized directly in the aqueous solution by diazotation and subsequent iodination in a one-pot reaction. The derivatives were extracted by direct-SPME using a PDMS/DVB fiber and analyzed by GC/MS in the full-scan mode. By diazotation/iodination, the polarity of the analytes was significantly decreased and as a consequence extraction yields were dramatically improved. The derivatization proved to be suitable for strongly deactivated aromatic amines and even the very polar diamino compounds can efficiently be enriched after derivatization. We investigated 18 anilines comprising a wide range of functional groups, which could be determined simultaneously. The method was thoroughly validated, and the precision at a concentration of 0.5 mug/L was 3.8-11% relative standard deviation for nonnitrated analytes using aniline-d(5) as internal standard and 3.7-10% for nitroaromatic amines without internal standard. The in situ derivatization/SPME/GC/MS method was calibrated over the whole analytical procedure and was linear over 2 orders of magnitude. Using 10-mL samples, detection limits of 2-13 ng/L were achieved for 15 of the 18 analytes. For two aminodinitrotoluene isomers and a diaminonitrotoluene, detection limits ranged from 27 to 38 ng/L. By allowing quantification at the 0.1 mug/L level, analysis of all target compounds meets EU drinking water regulations. The method provides high sensitivity, robustness, and high sample throughput by automation. Finally, the method was applied to various real water samples and in wastewater from a former ammunition plant the contents of several aromatic amines were quantified.