Significance of platinum group metals emitted from automobile exhaust gas converters for the biosphere.

In: Environmental science and pollution research : official organ of the EuCheMS Division for Chemistry and the Environment, EuCheMS DCE, Jg. 11 (2004) ; Nr. 3, S. 194-199.
ISSN: 0944-1344
Zeitschriftenaufsatz / Fach: Biologie
Abstract:
Intention, Goal, Scope, Background  
Following the introduction of automobile catalytic converters the platinum group metals (PGM) platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh) gain on increasing interest in environmental research as these metals are emitted with exhaust fumes into the environment. Consequently, elevated PGM levels were found in different environmental matrices uch as road dusts, soils along heavily frequented roads, sediments of urban rivers etc. Accordingly, the effects of increasing PGM emissions on the biosphere are controversially discussed.
Objective  
This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the biological availability of PGM to plants and animals. As biological availability is one of the most decisive factors determining the toxicologi-cal potential of xenobiotics, this information is very important to evaluate the possible threat of the noble metals to ecosystems.
Results and Discussion  
The availability of soluble as well as particle bound PGM to terrestrial plants was demonstrated in several studies. Experimental investigations revealed uptake of Pt, Pd and Rh also by aquatic plants. Additionally, the biological availability of the noble metals for animals has been verified in experimental studies using soluble metal salts, catalytic converter model substances, sediments of urban rivers, road dust or tunnel dust as metal sources. These studies refer mainly to aquatic animals. Beside of free living organisms, in particular worms parasitizing fish demonstrated a high potential to accumulate PGM. This could be of great interest in respect of biomonitoring purposes. Generally, for plants as well as for animals Pd turns out to be the best available metal among the PGM. Compared to other heavy metals, the biological availability of PGM from road dust to zebra mussels(Dreissena polymorpha) ranged between that of Cd and Pb.
Conclusion  
Especially chronic effects of PGM on the biosphere can not be excluded due to (1) their cumulative increase in the environment, (2) their unexpected high biological availability and bioaccumulation and (3) their unknown toxicological and ecotoxicological potential. However, it appears that acute effects on ecosystems due to anthropogenic PGM emission are not likely.
Recommendation and Outlook  
Research on environmental PGM contamination of the biosphere, especially the fauna, and on long-term toxiciry of low PGM concentrations is highly appreciated. These studies require very sensitive analytical techniques to determine PGM even in low sample amounts. Research has to be done in particular on reliable determination of (ultra) trace levels of Pd and Rh as the lack of data on these two metals is mainly due to analytical problems.

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