German Geographical Research on Japan.
Comparatively speaking, Germans have made a substantial contribution to the international geographical research on Japan. This is true not only of the period of seclusion and the opening of Japan, but also of the entire 20th century. Four periods are differentiated on the basis of research methods and main focus of research: Seclusion (Tokugawa Period 1600-1868) and Opening of Japan (Meiji Era 1868-1912): Compendiums and Encyclopaedic Regional Studies Post-Meiji Era, the World Wars and the Period Between (1913-1945): Japan?s Role in German Geopolitics, Japan Seen Through Its Ports and Urban Landscapes War and Post-War Period: Landscape Between Nature and Culture, the Cultural Landscape as Objectified Spirit Later Post-War Period up to 2000 ? Modern Geographical Research on Japan: Increasing Specialisation, Problem Orientation, Language Skills The greatest stress is placed on the most recent phase of research, in which new accents, protagonists, institutions, results and desiderata are presented.
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