Suspension polymerization of styrene with Pickering emulsifiers.
The suspension polymn. of styrene in water with hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate as Pickering emulsifiers and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (NaDDBS) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as surfactants was investigated. The adsorption of NaDDBS and PVP at the surface of the solids, the surface tensions of the aq. solns., the interfacial tensions between the aq. solns. and styrene and the contact angles vs. water and styrene, resp., were measured in dependence of the surfactant and the solids concns. In contrast to assumptions in literature, the adsorption equil. was found to be far on the side of desorption. The decrease of surface and interfacial tensions with increasing surfactant concns. esp. in the case of NaDDBS were stronger than expected due to an enhanced dissoln. of the solids caused by the surfactant. The contact angles of the binary systems were measured by the Washburn method. Surprisingly, their abs. values depended on the packing densities of the solids. The theory of Good and Girifalco was used to calc. the interfacial tensions and the contact angle between solids and water in the ternary system solid/water/styrene. For NaDDBS, the contact angle was higher than 90 Deg even at very low surfactant concns., causing unstable suspensions. Therefore, the modulation effect of NaDDBS seems to be very low and developing very slowly due to the slow adsorption process. Also for PVP the contact angle was higher than 90 Deg; however, stable suspensions were obtained. This may be due to the fact that PVP stabilizes polymer suspensions also without any solids and that in such a system the stabilizing effect of solids is of minor importance. In the case of PVP the particle size of polystyrene could be controlled by the PVP concn. and the length of the contact time between PVP and solid.
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